Reference Section
 Early Creeds, Catechisms, Commentaries, Ancient Apologetics, Reformation Documents, and Confessions

Some Apologetics of the Early Church

Apology of Aristides, AD 125

First and Second Apologies by Justin Martyr, AD 155

Dialogue with Trypho, by Justin Martyr, AD 155-AD 170

Genesis 1-11 Translation (BHT, 2024) 
by Bodie Hodge, M.Sc., B.Sc., PEI

Genesis 2
Genesis 3
Genesis 4
Genesis 5
Genesis 6
Genesis 7
Genesis 8
Genesis 9
Genesis 10
Genesis 11

Early Church Fathers

Ante-Nicene, Nicene, and Post-Nicene Fathers

Church Splits

Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian Church Split: When the Oriental Orthodox Church Split Separated (Armenia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and portions of the Middle East, East Asia, and India), AD 451

East-West Church Split: When the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western Church Split Apart, AD 1054

Precursors to the Reformation

The Waldensian Confession of Faith, based on Peter Waldo, ~ AD 1100s
John Wycliffe Bible Translation, AD 1382
Jan (John) Huss, d. AD 1415
William Tyndale Bible Translation, AD 1525, d. AD 1536

The Reformation, Beginning with Martin Luther and soon followed by Philipp Melanchthon, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, John Knox, and others began a return to the Bible as the absolute authority instead of Papal authority, AD 1517

What is the Reformation?
The 95 Theses
What did Reformers Believe about the Age of the Earth? 

The Creation Reformation, with the release of The Genesis Flood by Drs. Henry Morris and John Whitcomb to return to biblical authority instead of compromising with the secular humanism (i.e., millions of years, big bang, evolution, denial of a global Flood, etc.) that was beginning to dominate schools and churches, AD 1961

Major ministries that have formed as a result of this:

Some Reformational Documents

The Five Solas (5 Main Points of the Reformation)
  • Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone), The Bible alone is our absolute authority in all matters.
  • Sola Fide (Faith alone), We are saved by faith alone in Jesus Christ.
  • Sola Gratia (Grace alone), We are saved through the grace of God alone.
  • Solus Christus (In Christ alone), Jesus Christ alone is our Savior, Lord, Prophet, Priest, and King.
  • Soli Deo Gloria (To the glory of God alone), Therefore, we live for the glory of God alone.

Augsburg Confession, AD 1530, Lutheran

Guanabara Confession of Faith, AD 1558, Huguenot

Scots Confession, AD 1560, Scottish Reformed

Second Helvetic Confessions, AD 1562-1564, Swiss Reformed

Heidelberg Catechism, AD 1563

Canons of Dordt, AD 1618-1619

Westminster Confession of Faith, AD 1646-1647, Presbyterian

Westminster Larger Catechism, AD 1648

Westminster Smaller Catechism, AD 1648

Belgic Confession of Faith, AD 1651

The Savoy Declaration of Faith, 1658, Congregational

London Baptist Confession, AD 1689, Baptist 

Other Creeds and Confessions can be found here

Calvinism and Arminianism

Historical Documents

Royal Genealogies, James Anderson, AD 1732

The Annals of the World, James Ussher, AD 1656 (New Translation)

Ussher and the Date of Creation by Larry Pierce

Newton's Revised History of Ancient Kingdoms, AD 1728, (New Translation)

Adam's Chart of History

Josephus, Jewish Historian, Late First Century

Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius of Caesarea, d. AD 339

Geography of Strabo, Greek Geographer, d. AD 24

Classic Commentaries

John Calvin, AD 1540 - AD 1564

Henry Ainsworth, AD 1627

John Trapp, AD 1662

Matthew Poole, AD 1685

Matthew Henry, AD 1706

John Gill, AD 1746 - AD 1748

John Wesley, AD 1754 - AD 1765

Adam Clarke, AD 1810 -1826

Keil and Delitzsch, AD 1866

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown, AD 1871

H. C. Leupold, AD 1949 - AD 1969 

Council of Jerusalem, (recorded in Acts 15), First Century

Council of Nicaea, AD 325

First Council of Constantinople, AD 381

Council of Ephesus, AD 431

Council of Chalcedon, AD 451

Second Council of Constantinople, AD 553

Third Council of Constantinople,  AD 681-681

Second Council of Nicaea, AD 787

Early Christian Creeds

[As a note in these early creeds, the word "catholic" means the church as a whole, 
not the Roman Catholic Church.]

Didache  (The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations), First Century

The Apostle's Creed (Symbolum Apostolicum), AD 140-180

I believe in God the Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth:

And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord:
Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary:
Suffered under Pontius Pilate; was crucified, dead and buried: He descended into hell:
The third day he rose again from the dead:
He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty:
From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead:

I believe in the Holy Ghost:
I believe in the holy catholic church: the communion of saints:
The forgiveness of sins:
The resurrection of the body:

And the life everlasting. Amen. 

Creed of Nicaea (Symbolum Nicaenum), AD 325

We believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible; And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten from the Father, only-begotten, that is, from the substance of the Father, God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father, through Whom all things came into being, things in heaven and things on earth, 

Who because of us men and because of our salvation came down,
and became incarnate and became man, and suffered, and rose again on the third day, and ascended to the heavens, and will come to judge the living and dead, And in the Holy Spirit. 

But as for those who say, There was when He was not, and, Before being born He was not, and that He came into existence out of nothing,or who assert that the Son of God is of a different hypostasis or substance, or created, or is subject to alteration or change - these the Catholic and apostolic Church anathematizes. 

Nicene Creed AD 381

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of all that is, seen and unseen. 
We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. 
We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins.

Chalcedonian Creed (Concilium Chalcedonense), AD 451

We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul and body; consubstantial [co-essential] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ; as the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning Him, and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.

Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), ~AD 500

“Whoever wants to be saved should above all cling to the catholic faith. Whoever does not guard it whole and inviolable will doubtless perish eternally. Now this is the catholic faith:

“We worship one God in trinity and the Trinity in unity, neither confusing the persons nor dividing the divine being. For the Father is one person, the Son is another, and the Spirit is still another. But the deity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is one, equal in glory, coeternal in majesty. What the Father is, the Son is, and so is the Holy Spirit. Uncreated is the Father; uncreated is the Son; uncreated is the Spirit. The Father is infinite; the Son is infinite; the Holy Spirit is infinite.

Eternal is the Father; eternal is the Son; eternal is the Spirit: And yet there are not three eternal beings, but one who is eternal; as there are not three uncreated and unlimited beings, but one who is uncreated and unlimited. Almighty is the Father; almighty is the Son; almighty is the Spirit: And yet there are not three almighty beings, but one who is almighty. 

Thus the Father is God; the Son is God; the Holy Spirit is God: And yet there are not three gods, but one God. Thus the Father is Lord; the Son is Lord; the Holy Spirit is Lord: And yet there are not three lords, but one Lord.

“As Christian truth compels us to acknowledge each distinct person as God and Lord, so catholic religion forbids us to say that there are three gods or lords. The Father was neither made nor created nor begotten; the Son was neither made nor created, but was alone begotten of the Father; the Spirit was neither made nor created, but is proceeding from the Father and the Son. Thus there is one Father, not three fathers; one Son, not three sons; one Holy Spirit, not three spirits.

And in this Trinity, no one is before or after, greater or less than the other; but all three persons are in themselves, coeternal and coequal; and so we must worship the Trinity in unity and the one God in three persons. Whoever wants to be saved should think thus about the Trinity. It is necessary for eternal salvation that one also faithfully believe that our Lord Jesus Christ became flesh.

“For this is the true faith that we believe and confess: That our Lord Jesus Christ, God’s Son, is both God and man. He is God, begotten before all worlds from the being of the Father, and he is man, born in the world from the being of his mother—existing fully as God, and fully as man with a rational soul and a human body; equal to the Father in divinity, subordinate to the Father in humanity.

Although he is God and man, he is not divided, but is one Christ. He is united because God has taken humanity into himself; he does not transform deity into humanity. He is completely one in the unity of his person, without confusing his natures. For as the rational soul and body are one person, so the one Christ is God and man.

“He suffered death for our salvation. He descended into hell and rose again from the dead. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again to judge the living and the dead. At his coming all people shall rise bodily to give an account of their own deeds. Those who have done good will enter eternal life, those who have done evil will enter eternal fire. This is the catholic faith. One cannot be saved without believing this firmly and faithfully.”

How Old Is The Earth

How Old Is the Earth? Bodie Hodge, B.Sc., M.Sc., PEI on May 30, 2007; last featured May 22, 2024 Featured in  The New Answers Book 2 B...